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從壁畫上見到的跆拳道原形

  高句麗的始祖東明星王朱蒙由北扶餘南下,並定都於桓仁地方的卒本(忽本)。高句麗的領土,是以白頭山為中心而統轄漠半島漁江南面的全地域,以及中國滿州(現東北地方)的廣大國家。

  跆拳道的原貌,就是從位於滿州高句麗國都附近的古墳、角觝塚、三家塚等玄室壁畫中得到證實。角觝塚的壁畫,繪有二人互抓雙肩而做相撲,舞踊塚則繪有高句麗人的生活和女性們的舞姿。又,玄室天花板,則繪有二人正在互做跆拳道的對陣體勢。

  高句麗都原於AD3年定都於番都松,經過424年的西元427年才遷都於平壤,其間,高句麗人則築墳於該地,由此可知,這些壁畫正是證明跆拳道盛行的時間、起源。高句麗以繪畫風俗畫於墓壁做為習俗之一,換句話說,當時,跆拳道己普及到做壁畫,可見,跆拳道是成為非為學不可的國技。此外,因有不可避免的戰爭,於是武人們都跆拳道列為必修科目而力以訓練,這點,可從三室塚壁畫的武人攻城圖獲的證實。

 

新羅時代的花郎及跆拳道的實證

  新羅的建國雖然較早高句麗20年(BC57年),但建國初期仍然畏於高句麗威勢,而只是以現今慶尚地方為中心,而四面被國圍住的小國而已。其周圍雖都是以強國為鄰,但郤始終未被侵吞,而維持著725年的建國長久歷史。

  這新羅曾有花郎道的民俗活動。其內容是年輕人齊集而舉行祭祀神靈,並藉此磨鍊武藝、修練精神,於是活動終於保衛了新羅,同時,也形成了繁榮的原動力。尤其新羅時代並無理想的選拔人材方法,於是訂定了花郎制度,並讓少年們歌舞、遊戲,然後判別他們的性質、才能,以定人選。其中,有一判別方法就是手搏,亦即今天的跆拳道也是其判別方法之一。

  此外,新羅的武士們也盛行著弓射、蹴鞠、角觝、手搏(又書為手拍、手薄、手扁等)、騎射、狩獵、鞦韆、竹馬等武藝活動。顯然原屬軍人遊戲、歌舞的遊戲活動,在無形中終於運動化,而被稱為「嘉俳」。這嘉俳自農曆7月16日的既望開始,直到8月15日秋夕最高潮而終了的一種民族祭典。  還有許多歷史事實都充分證實跆拳道的普及、重視,如石窟庵的金剛力士像即是其一。

  新羅的國教雖然是佛教,可是部分的僧侶郤是花郎出身。如表現著跆拳道姿勢的石窟庵的守門佛像、金剛力士姿勢,都可充分證明跆拳道盛行於新羅的事實。在『帝王韻記』乙書中,有互立而相踢擊倒的新羅民俗記述。這方法有三:一是僅踢腳,二是技高而踢肩,三是技更高而踢向對方的髮髫。除了上述外,還有手癖打、拳白、下、打擊等武技廣泛地盛行於新羅、高句麗、百濟,而可後『史記』、『古事』等書中獲得證實。

 

百濟的武藝

  高句麗、新羅、百濟等互相對抗時,百濟則不落於高句麗、新羅之後,而大倡武藝於全國。如『三國史記』中,有阿華王等不少帝王,以各種方法獎勵進那些推廣武藝崇尚思想的功勞者。在百濟,其全體國民都以馬術、弓射、跆拳等做為遊戲活動。如『三國史記』中寫著,百濟本紀第三阿華王朝7月9日,聚集人民於西台而舉行弓射大會。由此可知,不只是官吏、軍人,還有包括庶民在內的國民全體都是武士,而研習各種武術甚明。

  百濟自BC18到AD660年,曾有一段輝煌歷史,但後來被新羅和唐朝的聯合軍打敗而滅亡,所以有關跆拳道的記述,則較少於高麗、新羅。然而,我們郤不能僅憑記錄少而斷然否定跆拳道在百濟的存在、普及。如讓人可以連想跆拳的「便戰戲」競技,則極盛行於百濟。所謂「便戰戲」,原以南原等地為中心而盛行智異山周邊的民俗競技,是分為二組來競爭勝負的,這便戰戲便是跟現存的跆拳道無異。跆拳道根深於百濟而絕不輸給高句麗與新羅。

 

高麗時代之空手搏擊

  高麗建立於AD918年。雖然在朝鮮半島成立統一的國家,可是自從高麗11代文宗王起,直到18代義宗王之間,因產輕武重文的風潮,於是引起了武官的叛亂,如「鄭仲夫之亂」即是。當初,武官們為清除腐敗的文官,並保衛正統的國基,乃發動叛亂。鄭仲夫手下擁有李義紋等優秀的跆拳武士甚多。義王因見李義紋的跆拳技,高於是命令部下學習手搏戲。除了這記錄外,還可以從『高麗史』等資料來判斷,高麗武藝的手搏,是廣被民間所愛好的武藝。

  茲介紹一插曲如下:高麗武士壯杜景升與空手搏擊高手的朋友一同往見義父時說:「空手搏擊並非是危險的武術,因此不應是有品德老才演練。」因此傳說到大將軍為止都沒有練習空手搏擊。

 

李朝時代的武藝

  韓國可以說是跆拳道的宗主國。尤其跆拳道的歷史實證和優異技術,是象徵著倍達民族(韓國民族的歷史上,古典式稱呼)的輝煌歷史,而更代表著祖先的智慧高於一般。

  跆拳道經高句麗、新羅、百濟,直到李朝時代而更為普及,更為科學化。如正祖14年(AD1790年),李德懋奉帝王之命而所著的『武藝圖譜通志』乙書即是。書中除了收錄跆拳(泰法)外,還有武器的使用法。

  當時,如想就職武官者,必須以跆拳擊倒對三人.還有泰宗王也時常藉酒宴而舉行跆拳的示範比賽,以重視武藝而努力於推展跆拳道。另外,於壬辰丁酉的倭亂(文祿、慶長之役)中,曾經700人義軍以從手在金山打敗倭兵(日本士兵),顯然這是充分證明跆拳在肉搏戰的威力。還有.在全羅道和清忠道境界的鵲旨村,其兩道人曾以跆拳道來決定勝負,由這記錄不難看出,當初國民之間對跆拳的愛好如何。

  但是,到李朝末因重文輕武的政治和四色黨爭(宮廷內派閥爭鬥),而更輕視武藝,結果,愛好跆拳道者在自虐與傾國之下,不得不借酒、打架來發洩鬱憤。此外,無能的文官則更以權力抑壓跆拳道,於是跆拳道則次第遠離國家和貴族層,而流落於庶民之間。之後,日本開始侵略韓國時,愛好跆拳道者則紛紛起來領導抗日運動。

 

近代的跆拳道

  1909年,日本侵佔朝鮮後,李朝滅亡、1910年,日本人建立了殖民政府。新政府禁止所有的朝鮮文化活動,跆拳道也在禁律之內。這期間,跆拳道幾乎絕跡,當時,許多朝鮮人遠離故鄉,到中國或日本謀生,因此跆拳道融於其它的武術形式中才得以延續下來。著名的跆拳道領導人崔泓熙將軍就曾留學日本,並獲空手道黑帶初段。雖然朝鮮禁武,但仍有人在秘密進行跆拳道的練習。

  1945年,朝鮮獨立後,家的政治、社會面貌發生了新的變,化自衛術再度興起,留落海外的朝鮮人也將各地的武技帶回本國,和跆拳道於一體,從而形成了現代跆拳道的體系。當時在朝鮮,自衛術的名稱很亂,諸如跆跟、手搏道空手道、唐手道和其它名稱等等。為了使朝鮮自衛術得以正規發展,拳師們都認為必須有個統一的名稱。

  1955年,跆拳道的領導人終於將朝鮮的自衛術統稱為「跆拳道」。跆(TAE),是指用腳踢技;拳(KWON),意指用拳擊打;道(DO),即指使用手腳的方法。由於跆拳道易學易練,且運動十分激烈,故深受人們的喜愛,很快在朝鮮得到了普及,同時,在海外也得到了廣泛的傳播。

  1961年9月朝鮮成立了唐手道協會(後更名跆拳道協會),第二次被接納為朝鮮業餘體育協會的會員,首次列為全國運動會正式比賽項目。

  1966年,成立了第一個國際組織--國際跆拳道聯盟,崔泓熙任主席,後因多種原因,於1972年遷移到加拿大的多倫多。

  1973年5月,世界跆拳道聯盟在漢城正式成立,金雲龍當選為主席,會員遍佈東南亞、歐洲、美洲百餘國。同年,在韓國舉行第一屆世界跆拳道錦標賽。

  1974年,在韓國舉行第一屆亞洲跆拳道錦標賽,自此世界跆拳道錦標賽及亞洲跆拳道錦標賽循迴在亞洲及世界各 地舉行。

  1975年,在金雲龍的積極努力下,世界跆拳道聯盟被接納為國際體育聯合會會員。

  1980年,國際奧委會正式承認了世界跆拳道聯盟。

  1986年,跆拳道被列為第10屆亞運會的比賽項目。

  1988年,漢城奧運會,首次被列為示範項目,更在2000年在雪尼奧運會,被列為正式項目。

  在短短十幾年中,跆拳道得到了空前的發展。目前,世界上約有110個會員國,2000萬之眾的愛好者參加跆拳道的練習。

  今天的跆拳道已不只是一種具有較高攻擊能力的技擊術,而且還是一種運動、精巧的藝術和健身的良方。


From the murals on the prototype to see Taekwondo

East of the founder of Goguryeo star Wang Meng Zhu Buyeo south from the north, and local capital in the single Huanren the (then this). Koguryo's territory, based on the rule as the center Baekdusan desert southern side of the peninsula-wide fishing area, as well as China's Manchuria (now Northeast areas) of the majority of the country.

Taekwondo original, that is, from countries located in the vicinity of the stained glass of Koguryo tombs, graves butt angle, the three mass graves and other mysterious mural room to be confirmed. Tsukamoto resist angle of murals, painted two of each other and do sumo grasping shoulders, Dance Dance Gaogouli denote the graves of life and women's dance. Also, mysterious room ceiling, then paint two of being against each other to do taekwondo body potential.

Gaogouli AD3 years in both the original fan is loose in the capital, after 424 years of de 427 in the years to move the capital Pyongyang, during which Gaogouli graves were built on the site, can be seen, the mural is the time to prove the prevalence of Taekwondo, origin. Gaogouli custom painting to painting as a practice in one of Grove Wall, in other words, when the popularity of taekwondo has been to do the murals, we can see, taekwondo is not to study the non-state technology. In addition, there is the inevitable result of war, so people are Taekwondo arms as a compulsory subject and the ability to train, which can be seen from the mound, Room Military person murals were confirmed siege map.



Silla Hwarang and the Empirical Taekwondo

Although the founding of Silla Korea 20 years earlier (BC57), but still fear in the early founding of Goguryeo Power and influence, but only to the current place as the center Gyeongsang, and surrounded on all sides by the country more than a small country. Although its surrounding neighborhood are powerful, but it has not been embezzled, and maintenance of a 725-year long history of nation-building.

This Silla Hwarang Road had the folk activities. Its content is held by young people gathered at worship the gods, and to honing skills, to practice the spirit, so to defend the activities of the Shilla finally, at the same time, it formed the driving force for prosperity. In particular, there is no ideal Silla personnel selection methods, so hwarang set system and let teenagers singing and dancing, games, and then determine their nature, can, in order to set candidates. Among them, one way is to hand fighting discrimination, which is today's Taekwondo is one of the methods of its identification.

In addition, the new Law of the samurai were the prevalence of a bow shot, Cuju, corner butt, hand pump (also written for the film in hand, hand-thin, hand flat, etc.), Firing from horseback, hunting, swing,Toy Horse activities such as martial arts. Military origin obviously games, singing and dancing activities and games in the last movement of virtually been referred to as "Kerry haiku." It Jia haiku since July 16 the Chinese of both hope to start until August 15 and ending climax Fall Evening a national ceremony. There are many historical facts are fully confirmed the popularity of Taekwondo, importance, such as the Book of Seokguram Grotto, like that of King Kong is one.

Silla's state religion is Buddhism, but it is part of the monks who hwarang. If the performance of the Taekwondo posture of sumon Seokguram Grotto Buddha, Vajra Book posture, can be fully proved popular in the new Romanian Taekwondo fact. Emperor in the 『B』 rhyme book in mind, the legislature and with each other kick down descriptions of the new Romanian folklore. This method are threefold: First, only the kick, and second, playing shoulder high technology, and the third is a higher technical Kicking each other's hair . In addition to the above, there are hands-free play, boxing white, under arms combat skills, such as widely prevalent in Silla, Goguryeo, Baekje, and may be after the Records of the Historian , old things such as the book was confirmed.



The opening of the Baiji

Goguryeo, Silla, Baekje, etc. against each other, the Baiji is not charged in the Koguryo, Silla, after the big topic of martial arts in the country. 『 Countries such as the Records of the Historian, there are quite a number of emperors, such as Hua Wang, incentives in various ways into the thinking of those who advocate the promotion of martial arts from the credit. In Baiji, its all the people are riding, bow shooting, taekwondo and other activities as a game. Such as Historical Records of Three Kingdoms written, Ji-third of the Baekje Dynasty Iowa July 9, gathered the people of Taiwan in the West Conference held shooting bow. It can be seen that not only government officials, military personnel, as well as including all the common people are people, including warriors, while learning a variety of martial arts very prescribed.

BC18 from Baiji to the year AD660, had a glorious history, but was later Silla and the Tang Dynasty, a joint military defeat and the demise, so the description of the Taekwondo has been less in Korea, Silla. However, we can not only record and categorically denied Taekwondo less Baiji in the existence of universal access. If people can not even want to taekwondo the "war would play" competition, is very prevalent in Baiji. The so-called "war will be drama," such as the original to the south of the original center Jirisan popular folklore surrounding sports is divided into two groups to compete on the outcome, it is the war movie with the same existing Taekwondo. Taekwondo deeply in Baiji and certainly not lost to Goguryeo and Silla.



Koryo era of empty-handed fighting

Korea was established in the year AD918. Although the establishment of a unified Korean peninsula in the country, but since the 11 on behalf of Korea Zongyao Wang until the 18 cases on behalf of justice between the king, because of re-production of light arms in the wave of text, so the military attache of the rebel cause, such as "Rebellion ZHENG Zhong-fu," that is, yes. At first, the military attache to the civil service to eliminate corruption and to defend the legitimacy of the IMF, is rebellion. ZHENG Zhong-fu Li Wen, such as his have a good many taekwondo warriors. Li Yi Yi Wang, see Wen's taekwondo skills is higher than the hand pump orders his subordinates to study drama. In addition to these records, but also from the history of Korea, information to determine, Korean martial arts of hand-pump was a civilian by the martial arts-loving.

One episode is introduced as follows: Du Zhuang Korea samurai fighting empty-handed or with a master's friends to see义父said: "Fighting is not the risk of empty-handed martial arts, there is a moral and therefore should not only exercise the old." So far the general legend to Fighting did not practice empty-handed.



Wu Yi Dynasty era

Taekwondo Korea can be said to be sovereign. In particular, positive history of Tae Kwon Do and excellent technology, is a symbol of the nation-fold (the history of the Korean nation, the Greco-called) of glorious history, but represents the wisdom of our ancestors than the general.

Taekwondo by the Koguryo, Silla, Baekje, and more times until the popularity of Yi Dynasty, more scientific. 14 years as Jeongjo (AD1790), the Yi Deokmu from Dili and Imperial edict book 『B』 Annals martial arts map book that is yes. Apart from the record book, taekwondo (Thailand and France), there is also the use of weapons.

At that time, such as military attache who would like to inauguration, to be knocked down to three taekwondo. There were Wang Thai banquet held from time to time by the model taekwondo competition, efforts to attach importance to the promotion of the martial arts and Taekwondo. In addition, the Japanese in the Japanese Invasion of chaos Jeongyujaeran (Wen Lu, Qing-long service), the 700 people who Yijun Jinshan from defeat at the hands of Japanese soldiers (Japanese soldiers), it is clear this is fully proved taekwondo in the power of hand-to-hand combat. There. Jeolla and clearance of the magpie Tadamichi purpose village level, the two taekwondo Road had to decide victory or defeat, by the record is not difficult to see, when people love between how taekwondo.

However, due to heavy at the end of the Yi Dynasty Wu Wen light of political and party struggles four-color (factional struggle within the palace), martial arts and more neglected, as a result, those who love taekwondo and dumping in the country under the self-torture, forced Taking advantage of liquor , fighting to vent anger Yu. In addition, the incompetence of the civil service is even more suppressed in the power of Taekwondo, Taekwondo is so far away from the state and one after another layer of nobility, while the common people living in between. After Japan invaded Korea, the loving one after another up taekwondo while leading the anti-Japanese movement.



Modern Taekwondo

1909, after the Japanese occupation of Korea, Yi Dynasty demise in 1910, the Japanese colonial government was established. The new government ban on all cultural activities in North Korea, Taekwondo is also prohibited within the law. During this period, almost extinct in Taekwondo, at the time, many Koreans to stay away from home, to China or Japan to make a living, so taekwondo martial arts into other forms can be inherited from. Well-known leaders of Taekwondo, General Choi Hong Hi had studied in Japan, and by the early part karate black belt. Although North Korea arms ban, but there are still people in the secret practice taekwondo.

In 1945, the Korean independence, home of political and social outlook of the new change, the emergence of self-defense once again, to stay off overseas Koreans will be the arms around the back of their skills, and Tae Kwon Do in one, creating a modern Tae Kwon Do system. At that time, the Korean, the name of self-defense into confusion, such as Tae with hand pump Road karate, Tang hand Road and other names and so on. In order for North Korea to the formal development of self-defense, that the boxer who must have a unified name.

In 1955, Taekwondo will be the leaders of North Korea finally collectively referred to as self-defense "Taekwondo." TAE is the kicking skills; KWON means to fight with boxing; Road DO is refers to the use of the method of hands and feet. Easy to learn as a result of Taekwondo training, and sport is very intense, it is very popular, soon to be universal in North Korea at the same time, in the overseas have also been widely disseminated.

North Korea in September 1961 set up a hand-Tang Association (later renamed Taekwondo Association), the second time it was accepted as the Korean Amateur Sports Association, for the first time the National Games as an official event.

In 1966, the establishment of the first international organizations - the International Taekwondo Federation, chaired General Choi Hong Hi, due to a variety of reasons, in 1972, moved to Toronto, Canada.

May 1973, the World Taekwondo Federation was formally established in Seoul, Kim was elected as President, Member throughout Southeast Asia, Europe, the Americas over the country. That same year, in South Korea held its first session of the World Taekwondo Championships.

In 1974, in South Korea held its first Asian Taekwondo Championships, and since World Taekwondo Championships and the Asian Taekwondo Championships on back in Asia and around the world held.

In 1975, Kim Un-yong of the positive efforts of the World Taekwondo Federation was accepted as a member of International Sports Federations.

In 1980, the International Olympic Committee officially recognized the World Taekwondo Federation.

In 1986, Taekwondo was listed as the 10th Asian Games events.

In 1988, the Seoul Olympics, the first time as a demonstration project, but also in the Sydney 2000 Olympics, was listed as an official project.

In a short span of ten years, Taekwondo has been an unprecedented development. At present, about 110 Member States, 20 million fans of the public to participate in the practice Taekwondo.

Taekwondo today is not only a higher capacity to attack the art of attack and defense techniques, but also a sport, fine art and a good way to fitness.
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韓國亞洲賽 2017